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In the presence of doping additives, tetraethoxysilane's hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane are investigated at low pH levels. Viscometry is used to determine the time of gel formation, as well as the activation time. Dynamic light scattering shows a change in particle size during the hydrolytic polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane in the presence of metal cations.
Palm pressed fibre is a lignocellulose pulp made from a palm oil mill that is abundant in cellulose, resulting in Palm pressed fibre. The effects of homogenisation pressures and cycles on CNC particle size, zeta potential, and rheological characteristics of CNC-produced were investigated. HPH was able to produce CNC with increased stability. CNC 0. 30 -PE produced larger droplets but higher stability than CNC 0. 15 -PE. In short, CNC with gel-like structure has the ability to stabilize oil-in-water emulsion in a variety of food applications as a natural Pickering emulsion.
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