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Acetaminophen overdose can cause hepatitis and even liver disease. N acetylcysteine is also the only FDA-approved antidote against APAP overdose 40 years after its introduction. Patients with moderate overdoses who appear within 8 hours of APAP ingestion are particularly able for patients with intravenous dosing regimens. Fomepizole has effectively stifled APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting Cyp2E1 when treated early, and by limiting c-jun N-terminal kinase and oxidant stress when treating after the metabolism phase, as shown in animal studies. In addition, the development of oxidative metabolites in healthy volunteers using the approved treatment regimen for fomepizole in volatile alcohol and ethylene glycol poisoning was reduced in healthy volunteers. Folmepizole may be a promising antidote to APAP overdose, as adjunct therapy to NAC, according to these mechanistic results, as well as the excellent safety profile after methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning and after an APAP overdose.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-021-03211-z
Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic but also a key cause of acute liver injury in the United States and several western countries. Although the role of the immune cells in liver transplantation has been established, murine versus hepatocytes' direct links between macrophages or neutrophils with hepatocytes can help promote hepatocyte proliferation and tissue repair remain unclear. CXCR2 was mainly expressed on hepatocytes, and it was stimulated specifically in hepatocytes around the necrotic region 24 h after APAP treatment. Depletion of Kupffer cells in particular prevented CXCR2 induction of hepatocytes by hepatocytes, which was largely off. Kupffer cells also controlled CXCR2 expression and pro-regenerative gene expression in live hepatocytes by production of IL-10 in vitro and in vivo experiments. Also, Kupffer cells help in the migration of hepatocytes around the area of necrosis to a proliferative state through CXCR2 expression.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-021-03183-0
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