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Methods The ex vivo 31 P NMR and total ATP values, ex vivo 31 P NMR's investigation into mitochondrial ATP synthesis was performed immediately after perfusion and isolation of liver, from 0 to ten hours after force-feeding with or isocaloric glucose; measurements were consistent in vivo conditions at any time of liver excision; The contribution of energetic metabolism to glycogen metabolism was estimated. In both groups, a net linear flux of glycogen synthesis occurred until the 6th hr post-feeding period, while butyrate delayed it until the 8th hr. During net glycogen synthesis, a linear correlation between total ATP and glycogen was only obtained during linear correlation. Conclusion The energy requirement for net glycogen synthesis from exogenous glucose in livers from 48 hr-starved rats corresponds to 50% of basal mitochondrial ATP turnover.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-8-38
We developed the FRET-based ATP sensor AT1. 03 in cultured hippocampal neurons isolated either from E17-18 rat embryos or P1-P2 rat pups and monitored [ATP]c simultaneously with mitochondrial membrane potential and NADH autofluorescence. [ATP]c]c in 84% of embryonic neurons did not rise [ATP]c significantly in 84% of embryonic neurons, and oligomycin inhibited mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that mitochondria behaved as consumers rather than providers of ATP in embryonic neurons. Measurements of m with the potential-sensitive probe JC-1 revealed that neuronal mitochondrial membrane potential was drastically reduced in embryonic cultures compared to the postnatal ones, owing to increased proton permeability of inner mitochondrial membranes, perhaps due to increased proton permeability of inner mitochondrial membranes. We conclude that ATP synthesis in embryonic but not postnatal neuronal cultures is predominantly glycolytic, and mitochondrial ATPase-mediated synthesis of ATP by mitochondrial ATPase is insignificant. We conclude that mitochondrial ATP synthesis is insignificant, but not in neonative neuronal cultures.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2012.00102
1 The true rates of O2 uptake and ATP synthesis are orders of magnitude higher than those reported under state-induced metabolic conditions. 2 The phosphorylation reaction of ATP synthesis is neither kinetically nor thermodynamically related to H+ ejection's respiratory reaction. 4 The free energy of electron flow is not only used for the enzymatic binding and manufacture of substrates and products, but rather for the actual production of ATP from ADP and Pi. ADP that leads to half-maximal responses of ATP synthesis EC 50 are not stable, but it can vary according to both E h and O 2 concentrations. The most significant factor in determining the amount and rates of ATP synthesis is not the level of ADP or proton gradient, but the concentration of O2 and the region of decrease and/or protonation of the membrane.
Many variations of mitochondrial structure and function prevent maximum ATP production in cancer cells by OxPhos. Mojate kinase M2's dimeric form of pyruvate kinase M2's dimeric form. Little ATP synthesis would occur by glycolysis in cancer cells that display the dimeric form of pyruvate kinase M2. Both OxPhos and glycolysis can partially compensate for reduced ATP synthesis in the glutamine-driven glutaminolysis pathway, which was illustrated by the succinate-CoA ligase reaction in the TCA cycle. The simultaneous restriction of glucose and glutamine provides a therapeutic tool for treating cancer.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101761
From the perspective of the torsional mechanism of energy conversion and ATP synthesis as well as the rotation-uncoiling-tilt energy storage mechanism of muscle contraction, complete details of the thermodynamics and molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction are provided. oxidative phosphorylation and muscle contraction are discussed, as well as mechanistic implications of the united theory of oxidative phosphorylation and muscle contraction. The binding change mechanism, the chemiosmotic theory, and the lever arm model are all investigated, showing the consistency of current methods of ATP creation and muscle contraction with experimentation, as well as the novel conclusions of the unified theory. It is shown from first principles how recent ATP synthesis and muscle contraction research contradict both the first and second thermodynamics laws, necessitating their revision. Lastly, applications of the united theory of cell life and cell death are discussed, and future research is explored.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms9091784
In the bibliography, a portion of the chemical energy released during ATP hydrolysis conversion converts into heat, and the other is used for Ca2+ transportation.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652000000300010
From the results, the thermodynamic efficiency of the coupled process is calculated, and it is found to be in accordance with linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic calculations. Based on the accepted biothermodynamic approach and a new biothermokinetic approach developed in this research, an efficient solution is found to emerge from consideration of the molecular aspects of Nath's theory. In the physiological state 3 with ADP and uncouplers, new experimental results in state 4 with uncouplers and redox inhibitors of OX PHOS and respiratory regulation are presented. A novel coupling scheme based on Nath's two-ion theory of energy coupling within the torsional mechanism is introduced and shown to analyze the results as well as the thermodynamics test, taking us beyond the chemiosmotic model.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/e21080746
Diabetes and metabolic syndrome, according to new research, a common cause of inorganic phosphate metabolism is seen in both diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Pi is a key precursor in the production of adenosine triphosphate, and several lifestyle disorders and cardiovascular risk factors have similarities in either one or two key ATP synthesis steps.
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