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Abstract In 2001, the International Organization for Standardization and American Petroleum Institute established a new committee to develop tests for determining proppants used in hydraulic fracturing. API Recommended Practices for testing proppants are generally reviewed and updated, affirmed, or deleted at least every five years" in accordance with API recommendations. Any business may follow these steps and state on their published reports that they used ISO protocols to produce the specifications of their product. A second committee was established in 2003 to write reports on how long term conductivity of a proppant pack. Under the specifically described test conditions for use in hydraulic fracturing operations, these two new methods will enable users to investigate and compare proppant characteristics.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2118/110697-ms
Abstract Formation consolidation is a type of sand control that was widely used in the past, but has largely been replaced by mechanical methods such as gravel packs or expandable screens. A series of experiments was carried out on samples of Castlegate sandstone to determine both treatment placement and results under reservoir conditions, in order to determine the effectiveness of various consolidation options. A realistic modeling approach was used to determine the efficiency of a consolidating agent with regard to its application or coating characteristics, which in turn directly influences the resulting strength and maintained permeability after chemical treatment, which in turn influences the resulting strength and retained permeability after chemical treatment. The results from the flow testing show that a critical strength is required to hold the treated sand in place and to overcome the flow force generated by flow. Treatment volume, pressure reduction, and permeability are all factors that influence therapeutic penetration into the formation matrix. The amount of consolidating agent coating on the sand and the resulting strength vary depending on the concentration of the agent in the treatment solution. Only a modest amount of sand was observed to emerge from the treated perfunction, compared to a much larger amount of sand produced by the perforation process, even as the perforation rate was lower.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2118/120901-ms
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