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"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is responsible for a global pandemic with measurable effects on human health and economies around the world. " A variety of animal species have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 by experimental and/or natural infections. Moreover, the initial challenge of sheep showed limited infection with viral RNA shed in nasal and oral swabs at 1 and 3-days post challenge; viral RNA was also found in respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues at 4 and 8 DPC. Sero-reactivity was present in some of the primary infected sheep but not the contact sentinels, indicating that transmission to co-mingled nau00efve sheep was not particularly effective; however, viral RNA was found in respiratory tract tissues of sentinel animals at 21 DPC. Our results show that sheep have low susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 disease and that the alpha strain outcompeted the lineage A strain. ".
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35105272
"Sergetion of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection and experimental infections of a wide variety of animal species has been reported," said the author, and in vitro and in vitro studies have revealed that deer are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 disease. " White-tailed deer are one of the most common and geographically widespread species of wild ruminant species in the United States. Adult WTD are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 disease and can be spread by direct contact, as well as vertically from doe to fetus, according to our findings. Also, we discovered that the alpha VOC B. 1. 7 isolate of SARS-CoV-2 outcompetes the ancestral lineage A isolate in WTD, as shown by the virus's genome shed from nasal and oral cavities of primary infected and contact animals, as well as the virus DNA in tissues of principal infected deer, fetuses, and contact animals.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/34842046
"While the X chromosome preserved its gene content, the Y chromosome lost 92% of the genes that it had shared with the X chromosome for the first time. " We find expression in a broader range of somatic tissues outside of eutheria, where PRSSLY orthologs are not Y-linked, suggesting that PRSSLY has developed a germ-cell-specific function in eutherians. We finally established Prssly mutant mice, which are completely reproducible, but produce offspring with a small female-biased sex ratio relative to controls. Conclusions PRSSLY is the first example of a gene that derives from the mammalian ancestral sex chromosomes that was missing from the X and retained on the Y. ".
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35676717
"Methods We conducted an open label trial of a third vaccine dose of an mRNA vaccine in adults aged u226530 years who had previously received two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in adults aged u226530 years. " Before administering the third dose and 28 days later, we took blood samples and tested for antibodies to the ancestral virus using a binding assay, a surrogate virus neutralization test, and a live virus plaque reduction test. The geometric mean PRNT50 titers increased by 45 fold from Day 0 to Day 28 against the ancestral virus and the Omicron variant climbed by 11 fold. Conclusions An mRNA vaccine in adults who had received two doses of inactivated vaccine six months earlier significantly raised antibody levels against the ancestral virus and the Omicron variant with a well-tolerated safety profile. ".
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35675370
"Background Human leukocyte antigen A*03, a hemochromatosis ancestral haplotype marker, was associated with increased iron overload in hemochromatosis cohorts long before the HFE gene was discovered. In referred HFE p. C282Y homozygotes, we wondered if an A*03-linked locus influences phenotypes. phenotypes of both male and female were determined separately in three A*03 subgroups. In men, mean TS and median SF were both significantly higher in A*03 homozygotes than heterozygotes, but not in A*03-negative probands. In men, median APRI was significantly lower in A*03 heterozygotes than homozygotes and A*03-negative probands. Conclusions An A*03-linked locus does not influence phenotypes in referenced HFE p. C282Y homozygotes, according to our results. It is unlikely that hereditable causes that change phenotypes of p. C282Y homozygotes are related to the hemochromatosis ancestral haplotype.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35659379
"Immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1," the mammalian pituitary gland has a prominent expression. Humans have chronic central hypothyroidism due to mutations in the IGSF1 gene. The ancestral IGSF1-CTD gene encoded the IGSF1-CTD gene, which was duplicated and integrated immediately upstream of itself, yielding a much larger protein encompassing the IGSF1-NTD and IGSF1-CTD," we suggest based on phylogenetic results.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35653309
"Two main theories have been proposed to explain mitochondrial engulfment and microbial symbiosis in eukaryotes: phagotrophic engulfment and microbial symbiosis. " The two theories lead to contradictory claims about the order in which mitochondria and phagocytosis arose. We reconstructed the appearance of these traits in 1,789 different rooted gene trees, including species from opisthokonts, mycetozoa, hacrobia, excavate, archeplastida, and SAR, in order to reduce the bias introduced by assuming a specific eukaryotic phylogeny. ASR across trees was analyzed by a novel phylogenomic test. Both phagocytosis and phagotrophy arose subsequent to mitochondrial genesis, according to results from comparative physiology. According to the results, mitochondria preceded the onset of phagocytosis, meaning that phagocytosis may not have been the cause by which mitochondria were obtained. ".
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35642316
"Ancestral sequence reconstruction was used to infer ancestral CYP711A sequences based on a large number of extant CYP711 sequences. " The monocot group 3 ancestor, who arose from gene duplication events within monocot grasses, showed increased catalytic capacity towards GR24 and high stereoselectivity toward the GR24 isomer resembling strigol-type SLs. These results are consistent with a CYP711As involvement in strigolactone diversification in early land plants, which may have extended to the diversification of strigol-type SLs. ".
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35644901
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