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Last Updated: 16 October 2021

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The association between SAα2,3Gal occurrence frequency and avian influenza viral load in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teals (Spatula discors)

HISTORY: Individual heterogeneity in pathogen tons can influence condition transmission characteristics; for that reason, determining innate aspects liable for variant in pathogen load is needed for establishing which people are vulnerable to be most contagious. To test the all-natural variation of free-ranging duck populations, birds were hatched out and raised in bondage from eggs gathered from nests of free-ranging birds in North Dakota, USA. Collectively, teals had both higher infection titers and a greater incident frequency of SAα2,3 Gal compared to mallards, which might indicate a positive association in between viral tons and SAα2,3 Gal. VERDICTS: The results of this study give measurable evidence that SAα2,3 Gal abundance is related to LPAIV titers; therefore, SAα2,3 Gal need to be considered a potential innate factor influencing variant in LPAIV tons.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/7177317


Glucocorticoid receptor involvement in goose (Anas cygnoides) pituitary somatotroph differentiation induced by glucocorticoids during embryonic development

In this research, geese embryonic pituitary cells were cultured in vitro to figure out if glucocorticoids can generate growth hormone expression and to examine the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. On embryonic day 15 and e20 the pituitary cells were treated with corticosterone, membrane layer nonporous bovine lotion albumin-- conjugate corticosterone, dexamethasone, and a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist to identify responsiveness of somatotrophs to glucocorticoids. Treatment with CORT, CORT-BSA, and DEX for just 6 h raised the percentage of GH-positive cells and increased GH mRNA expression in e15 goose pituitary cells contrasted to the control. CORT significantly enhanced the degree of GH protein secreted from cultured e15 goose beginning pituitary cells, and CORT-BSA increased GH secretion from e20 goose beginning pituitary cells. These searchings for demonstrate that glucocorticoids can promote somatotroph differentiation in vitro, as qualified by boosted GH healthy protein secretion andmRNA expression in cultured geese beginning pituitary cells.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/6540983


Infected or not: are PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs indicative of low pathogenic influenza A virus infection in the respiratory tract of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos?

Discovery of flu infection in oropharyngeal swabs collected throughout wild bird surveillance is assumed to stand for respiratory infection, although intestine is the primary site of infection. Thirty-two of 125 Mallards tested had viral-RNA positive oropharyngeal swabs. The respiratory systems of four Mallards with the most virus were analyzed thoroughly by immunohistochemistry.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/358778


Histomorphological features of the tongue of the Eurasian teal (Anas crecca)

This research offers the histomorphological functions of tongue in Eurasian teal; the smallest extant dabbling duck. The outcomes show a tongue with 3 various parts; the apex with a lingual nail in ventral surface area, the body with a lingual prominence in caudal part and some little and big conical papillae in lateral sides and the root, that was covered with many cone-shaped papillae in different dimensions. The linguistic salivary glands were observed in the lamina propria of the body and origin of the tongue showed strongly routine acid-- Schiff positive response. The yellow fat was located under the lamina propria on the body and root of the tongue. To conclude, the histological and physiological framework of the Eurasian teal' tongue was typically similar to its family participants such as residential goose and duck yet showed some differences that may be fosterings to the bird's habitat and setting of feeding.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5908457


Body temperature responses of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) exposed to different pathogens

Creatures create high temperature when revealed to the components of infections or gram-positive microorganisms, and the high temperatures stimulated by these different pathogenic courses have distinct features. We after that compared the Tb conjured up by each shot with the Tb after a shot of saline. Muramyl dipeptide did not impact Tb. The cell wall surfaces of heat-killed S. aureus conjured up resilient, dose-dependent fevers with fairly low sizes. Fever is a widely known professional sign of infection in creatures, and the outcomes of this research study indicate that the pattern of rise in Tb can offer as an indicator for varied pathogenic illness in birds.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/569729


Analytical performance of the AtheNA MultiLyte® ANA II assay in sera from lupus patients with multiple positive ANAs

The purpose of this research study was to review the precision and precision of an industrial multiplexed kit for the dimension of 9 anti-nuclear antibodies, and to contrast these outcomes to a subset of ANAs determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunodiffusion. ANA arises from the AtheNA MultiLyte ® ANA II Assay were compared to ELISA outcomes and patients. No false positive ANA results were observed for either the control or business source autoimmune disease products. These outcomes show that the AtheNA assay is a specific and exact choice for executing numerous ELISAs or IDs in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions, specifically when the number of lotions to be tested is big, such as in professional screening or epidemiologic studies. It appears that the AtheNA assay recognizes positive ANA specificities which are missed by ID strategies, recommending that it might have higher analytical level of sensitivity for some ANAs.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/2818775


Study of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Commercial Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California

A February 2015 episode of very pathogenic bird flu H5N8 in a group of commercial Pekin ducks in California was investigated carefully. Around 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an enhanced mortality from a typical of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds each day, specifically, in the last 5 days prior to group depopulation. Necropsy of 5 clinically sick ducks exposed light, uneven locations on the epicardium in two birds, light emphases of death in the liver of one bird, and airsacculitis in 3 birds. Immunohistochemistry revealed avian flu infection nucleoprotein in the center and cytoplasm of different cells in the abovementioned body organs, as well as in the skin and feathers. 8 of the 10 products samples tested declared for bird flu antibodies by agar gel immunodiffusion serology. Comprehensive monitoring of birds for AIV around the 10-km zone did not disclose any type of added situations.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5968010


The Presence of Mercury in the Tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) from Włocławek Reservoir in Poland

The research targeted at identifying the level of mercury contamination of mallards, game waterbirds moving from the areas of the unknown degree of contamination and establishing whether the intake of their meat consists of a hazard to human health in view of the binding norms concerning the mercury content in food products. The examinations were carried out on 30 mallards shot during the duck capturing period in which mercury concentrations in the muscle mass, liver, and kidneys were established utilizing the cool vapor atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The mean Hg concentration in the examined tissues in all birds studied amounted to 0. 110, 0. 154, and 0. 122 mg kg ⁻¹ for the muscular tissues, kidneys, and liver, respectively. In the 2nd group, highly substantial positive relationship between Hg concentrations in the liver and kidneys and extremely considerable negative reliance in between the liver and muscles was noted.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5757131


Influence of Weather, Wetland Availability, and Mallard Abundance on Productivity of Great Lakes Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

We utilized information from 1961 to 2011 to examine impacts of weather condition, breeding habitat schedule and wealth of breeding mallards on performance rates of mallards breeding in the Great Lake states. We assumed that efficiency rates would enhance with wetter and warmer conditions however, severe temperatures might have a negative effect and that high breeding density might negatively impact efficiency rates. We made use of a minimized time collection model established to evaluate the effects of wetland matters on productivity. We think that breeding environment schedule is likely a reasonable forecaster of mallard productivity rates in the GLS.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5559416


Yolk size and ovulation order determine fertility within double-yolked duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) eggs

Herein we examined the impacts of yolk dimension and ovulation order on the fertilisation of yolks within double-yolked duck eggs. Single-yolked duck eggs had high fertility, whereas in DY duck eggs fertility was low. When only one of the 2 yolks was fertilised, Yolk 1 was fertilised in 99. 12% of those eggs. Small DY eggs within the regular SY egg weight variety had substantially reduced yolk fertility compared to big DY eggs. DY eggs with absolutely no fertilised yolks were considerably lighter than DY eggs with 1 or 2 fertilised yolks.

Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/4860174

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions