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Regardless of the sensor's output impedance changes, the current flowing through the sensor must remain stable. In this way, the voltage across the probe is proportional to the distance between the probe and the target. However, the investigation's high impedance cannot be ignored in comparison to the output impedance of the Howland source. The latest scheme calls for two nested loops and two cascaded controllers, as a quick but precise outer control loop in order to obtain a high-precision AC output current.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9451808
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