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The introduction of fifth-generation cellular technology, also known as '"5G'" networks, is expected to be able to meet data speed access requirements. Telkomsel operators in Indonesia are using a frequency of 2. 3 GHz with a bandwidth of 50 MHz in order to maximize the use of the existing 5G network. To maximize signal capture range, we need an antenna amplifier that is fast to produce and place wherever. For this amplifier, a microstrip antenna is a good antenna. This microstrip antenna was created in the CST Studio Suite 2019 with the intention of creating this microstrip antenna. This antenna was 105 meters or 40 meters farther than not using the antenna in testing the signal capture capability using the Xirrus WiFi Inspector, which was able to capture the signal beam.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.33387/protk.v10i1.4857
Multiple independent and co-existing logical networks on a physical network infrastructure are supported by the concept of Network Slicing in 5G-and-beyond networks. The tenant slice requests are supported by the infrastructure provider's virtual and physical infrastructure that are used to support the tenant slice requests. Each slice request specifies a service level agreement that includes the necessary slice-level expertise and tenant's revenue. Renters have tended to overestimate their resource needs in order to minimize potential SLA abuses, according to the authors. We consider a multi-tenant environment and suggest a slice admissions device called PRLOV, which is based on Reinforcement Learning and prediction techniques. In addition, the admission decision is formulated as a Markov Decision Process issue and solved using standard RL methods. For forecast purposes, data traces from the Materna data center networks were used.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1109/OJCOMS.2022.3227591
The latest cell-less radio access network architecture, which is primarily based on 5G and beyond 5G networks, is being used to solve the extreme network capacity constraints posed by massive wireless networks used for various scenarios and various applications. At the same time, the growth of cell phone communications faces the formidable challenge of increased network power consumption. Our recommended (30̆0d7E) platform unlocks two-step sleep modes by intelligent interference control for temporarily switching access points to sleep, increasing the network's effectiveness in demanding cases as well as in scenarios with lower load. Simulation results show that the network EE has been up to 30% relative to the reference algorithm and up to 60% with respect to the baseline algorithm, in which all APs are operational all the time.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3233430
Using 5G is often necessary. It's difficult to solve public transport planning issues using 5G. However, more countries use the 5G NSA alternative, which is a 5G network that is enabled by existing 4G networks, but more countries are using the 5G NSA alternative, which is also included in existing 4G networks. One of the main reasons for choosing NSA 5G is that it also provides 4G equalization in its area. The issue is determining the amount of 5G needed for public transportation planning. In addition, mobile network big data needs robust and stable internet access, with widespread coverage in real time. The difference between mmWave and sub-6 5G can be used to support transportation planning. This paper examines the literature on 5G and then matches the network coverage obtained in Indonesia using nPerf data services. This report also addresses the current market conditions and the growth of smart cities as well as an overview of how real-time mobile data can aid public transport planning.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010672
Multiple access methods can be subdivided into two groups, Orthogonal and non-orthogonal multiple access techniques are two types of access technologies into which multiple access technologies can be divided. Massive NOMA was designed to improve access quality by allowing multiple users to share a common wavelength. It provides critical tasks for system design and resource management due to the robust co-channel interference between mobile users featured by NOMA. Both Multi-user shared access protocols and extended multi-user shared access methods are used. In the MUSA technique, an algorithm is used for resource allocation that results in minimum intercorrelation in 5G networks. A novel approach in this paper is to write complex codes starting from PN codes, resulting in promising improvements in the overall system's performance. The first part of this paper discusses MUSA's basic principles, and the main idea of the proposed procedure will be investigated in depth in the next part.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010236
The 4G network is not sufficient for meeting the high data needs of smart city dwellers. The 5G network intends to fulfill these demands and address other application issues, such as fast data delivery, video buffering, and coverage issues, by providing convenient mobile data to smart city residents. The simulation findings revealed that the HFDI detection method yielded steady results in low signal-to-noise ratio ranges and increased channel detection and throughput of approximately 17% and 10%, respectively.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010118
The ubiquitous 5G NR cellular network would continue to expand UAVs and UGVs throughout the localization of UAVs and UGVs. Two general categories: range-based and fingerprinting. We review the RF attributes that can be used for localization and analysis the latest techniques suitable for Unmanned Vehicles.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010188
The research, which determined the interference levels to the satellite bent pipe links was done, was used to determine this impact and see whether 5G NR could have adverse effects on the spaceborne receivers. The findings of the investigation demonstrated that coexistence of 5G NR and satellite technologies in the 6425-u20137125 MHz bands is possible, and that no adverse effect on the satellite links is expected.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010172
Due in large part to their decentralized model learning process and privacy-preserving capabilities, Edge-based distributed intelligence tools, such as federated learning, have recently been used in numerous academic fields. However, only a small number of FL apps have been developed for the new generation of public mobile networks due to a lack of efficient deployment schemes for the radio access network. In recent RAN paradigms, there is an attempt to shift toward disaggregation, hierarchical, and distributed network function processing designs. Open RAN, a cutting-edge RAN technology that uses cutting-edge RAN techniques, claims to deliver 5G services with high quality. This paper introduces a framework for deploying and optimizing FL tasks in O-RAN to produce distributed intelligence for 5G applications. Using RAN intelligence controllers, we first provide reinforcement learning for each FL task and resource allocation for each round of model training.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010133
Background: This research intends to determine human exposure to EMF thanks to two different wearable antennas tuned to two 5G bands. Exposure conditions were measured by determining the specific absorption rate on ten g of tissue and the absorbed power density — depending on the frequency of the wearable antenna. Conclusions: This research demonstrates the benefits of doing an exposure investigation before the antenna is attached to the human wearer, considering the increasing use of wearable technology and its wide variety of uses, particularly regarding future 5G networks.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010104
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