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"The emergence of 4G and 5G broadband networks poses numerous challenges in terms of resource allocation in the networks. The aim of this research is to determine the various factors that influence resource allocation in 4G and 5G networks. Because of their wireless connectivity, it was found that resource allocation is mainly carried out by radio resources in 4G and 5G networks, owing to their wireless connectivity, and throughput, and time is measured in terms of delay, fairness, packet loss ratio, spectral effectiveness, and throughput. Other resources along the end-to-end 4G and 5G network architectures are being considered by Minimal considerations. "This paper introduces more types of resources, including electrical energy, processor cycles, and memory space, along end-to-end architectures, whose allocation processes must be emphasized due to the inclusion of software defined networking and network function virtualization in 5G network architectures.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.54039/ijcnis.v13i3.5116
The reduced delay between mobile device and base station in future 5G wireless networks with wide-band MIMO and ultra-density cells increases in the delay between mobile device and base station by 1 ms. An orthogonal pilot sequence is sent by the user to the base station from user for channel estimation of uplink training. MIMO is the first PLS technology considered in this scenario. The first PLS device tested in this proposed method is a possible beam forming technique. In addition to information, the AN also reduces the transmitter's ability to detect and decode information sent to the intended receiver by producing random noise signals in lieu of information signals. This report contains latest channel estimation and MIMO detection software for MIMO on a large scale, assuaging the computational cost of broadband matrix computation. Channel empathy allows the base station only to obtain channel status reports from UL pilots" in order to get channel status reports from UL pilots. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.33292/ijarlit.v2i1.31
"Current 4G - the fourth-generation wireless communications network, which is present in most countries, is an improvement over the previous 3G wireless communications. The new 4G system's key issues include increasing smart device adoption, the creation of new multimedia applications, and the growing need for high data rates. The wireless system designers have started testing on the fifth-generation wireless devices as a solution. The 5G revolution, which may include ultra-high data rate, low latency, an increase of the base station capacity, and the enhanced service quality, will all be the paradigm shift. This paper is a summary of the changes in the transition of existing cellular networks to 5G as a result of technological evolution. This paper is a summary of the changes during this transition. It was a comprehensive study involving 5G, its benefits, and challenges. In addition, it addressed physical layer technologies, which include new channel modes estimation, new antenna layout, and MIMO technologies.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.93
"The mobility of the wireless networks and time-sensitive tasks make it desirable for the system to transfer the messages with minimum delay. " The latency issue, according to the Cloud Radio Access Network, can be reduced. In this article, Edge devices are recommended to have a trust level in the C-RAN node by monitoring the rates of devices that are permitted to share information among other devices. The edge devices are automatically authenticated by a unique identification that is shared by the cluster head with all C-RAN nodes connected to it. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id153
"Abstract": This work outlines the development of a compact metasurface-integrated multi-output antenna for fifth generation sub-6 GHz wireless communication networks. U00d7 0. 05 billion. 04bb>u03bb U00d7 0. 02u03bb> U00d7 0. 02 bb/u03bb>u00d7. 02 BB;u03bb>u00d7 0. 02 bb>u00d7 0. 02 u03bb) u00d7 0. 02 u03bb>u03bbbb With a minimum dimension of 1. 05 billion u00du00d7 u03bbbbbb>u03bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb u03bbbbbb The proposed 4-port MIMO antenna gives a high real gain of 8. 3 dBi compared to previous MIMO antennas with an excellent average total yield of 82% in the 5G sub-6 GHz bandwagon spectrum and is in good agreement with measured measurements. "In addition, the newly developed MIMO antenna exhibits outstanding diversity in respect of envelope correlation coefficient less than 0. 004 percent, with high connectivity between MIMO components and high isolation among MIMO components. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13522-5
"Lightweight cryptography is a field of cryptographic techniques with low computational complexity and resource requirements. " SDN-IoT, a new layer of network architecture, comes into play to control and monitor IoT devices in a network with low latency and high throughput. We'll address both the benefits and drawbacks of using LWC algorithms in hardware and software environments, as well as the different SDN-IoT network layers. We also discuss SDN security architecture and different performance metrics for LWC algorithms.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.102984
"An optimum rain fade margin for the 5G network in Peninsular Malaysia is suggested by using 77 locations of the rain gauge network, which convert 1-h rain data to 1-min rain data by means of the international telecommunication union's P. 837-7 model. " In monthly reports and in rain attenuation contour maps, the estimated rain attenuation is also present.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1017/s1759078721000751
"Because 5G telecommunications becomes a standard and widely used communication medium, it must be carried out in coherence with established 5G network standards and requirements. " However, it is still possible to encrypt the first terminal to be encrypted, but it is also possible to exchange a key with the home network, and this key exchange for SUCI encryption is carried out using the Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme key exchange algorithm, which is a public-key encryption scheme. However, ECIES uses more computing resources in comparison to a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm. In addition, for 5G Subscriber Identity Deconcealing Function, it is also necessary to decrypt at least a million SUCIs within a short period. We therefore suggest a way of manufacturing 5G SIDF in an mMTC IoT environment in this paper. The use of GPUs is a key component of the aforementioned 5G SIDF configuration's design.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4087816
"Abstract Today Today's wireless networks would be incomplete without MIMO technologies, which have become increasingly popular in recent years due to their ability to raise both spectrum efficiency and energy conservation at a rapid rate. " An artificial intelligence machine (MIMO) is being used throughout this research to determine the angle of elevation and angle of arrival for 3D MIMO in 5G systems. The problem is solved by AI-based machine learning, which has more throughput and an energy efficient 5G system.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2273/1/012007
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