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Phase change materials have a great deal of heat storage capacity and isothermal behavior during phase transition, making them ideal for thermal management applications. At a low BNNS load, the advanced PCN films have ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 28. 3 W m u22121 K u22121, resulting in increased fire retardancy, high enthalpy, outstanding ductility, and increased fire retardancy. Further, the PCNs provide effective cooling solutions on 5G base station chips and thermoelectric generators, as shown by promising thermal control applications on high-power density equipment and thermoelectric conversion units.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40820-022-01003-3
With centralized control, you can get a global view and ensures effective network resource management. This paper outlines a novel traffic planning algorithm to prevent congestion in the control plane. Both important and non-critical 5G communications are divided into two classes by adopting Dual-Spike Neural Networks classifier and implementing it on a Virtualized Network Function. The simulation findings showed that the DSNN model could improve traffic classification accuracy by 5% relative to a convolutional neural network.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.31026/j.eng.2023.01.07
5G is the technology standard for cellular broadband networks, and it was developed by 3GPP. 5G uses device-to-device communications, dividing the service area into small geographical areas called cells. This chapter includes a brief introduction to 5G networks; brief notes on the history of its predecessors, such as 2G, 3G, and 4G; as well as a comprehensive tour of the 5G network's architecture.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-6684-6413-7.ch016
A rigorous literature review has found evidence of several key 5G components, architecture, or security, but none that are comprehensive in scope, including all of the aforementioned categories, or that consider specific risks and risks to the basic 5G infrastructure. In this sense, the 5G framework recommended by the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity in its comprehensive paper is unique in relation to the extensive literature surrounding 5G innovation and the fragmented nature of scientific reporting related to 5G technology.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.12688/openreseurope.15219.1
Different base stations switch between different base stations quickly, resulting in a lot of traffic and a substantial amount of network latency. This paper introduces a hybrid caching scheme based on the 5G-ICN bearer network infrastructure, based on a time segmentation-based hybrid caching scheme. We update the pathu2019s least-used cache copy in order to preserve cache copies during times of high demand. We recommend that we maintain cache copies' diversity in the event of high liquidity. To ensure users can find the information they are most interested in quickly, we investigate each node's cache value and make caching decisions in times of low liquidity to ensure that users can access the information they are most interested in quickly.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/fi15010030
Current 4G, the fourth-generation wireless communications service that is available in most countries, represents an advancement over the previous 3 generation wireless communications. The key issues of the current 4G system are increasing smart device proliferation, the creation of new multimedia games, and the increasing demand for high data rates. As a solution, the wireless system designers have begun testing on the fifth-generation wireless networks. 5G will be the paradigm shift that could result in the advent of ultra-fast data delivery, low latency, an increase in the base station capacity, and improved service quality. This paper is a review of the evolution of existing cellular networks into 5G as a result of technological evolution. This paper is a summary of the changes that occurred during the transition of current wireless networks toward 5G. In addition, it addressed physical layer technologies, which include new channel modes estimation, new antenna layout, and MIMO technologies. It also addressed MAC layer protocols.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.93
Cloud Radio Access Network reduces the latency issue, which can be reduced. In this article, edge devices, there is a need to maintain a trust level in the C-RAN node by checking the rates of devices that are allowed to share information among other devices. The SDN controller is embedded in a macro-cell that performs the role of a cluster head. The edge devices are automatically authenticates by assigning a unique identifier that is shared by the cluster head with all C-RAN nodes connected to it, according to the blockchain-based securely authenticates them.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id153
For fifth-generation applications, a compact substrate integrated waveguide antenna array capable of operating at 28 GHz and 38 GHz is recommended. The present array consists of four SIW cavities manufactured on a single layer of substrate. The proposed configuration shows a miniature footprint without stacking substrates in comparison to dual-band SIW antennas in the literature. Given these features, including dual bands, high gain, narrow beam widths, miniaturization, and a single layer, the current antenna array is a good candidate for millimeter-wave 5G communication systems with the ability of changing operating frequency bands against channel quality variations.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6478272
This paper introduces a novel method for the reduced-complexity Min-Sum decoding of low density parity check codes in the partially parallel layered decoder system, which includes a large number of serial check node processors. Although reduced-complexity MS applications primarily decrease hardware resources in completely parallel implementations, the findings showed that a substantial savings can be achieved if serial check node processors are used. The method results in a substantial increase in the SNR's quality as a result of the increase in the SNR's quality due to smaller subpoena weights in check nodes with a higher degree and higher weights in check nodes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.5937/telfor2101007p
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