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This paper recommends a generic model, VaPChain, that blends blockchain and unmanned aerial vehicles for timely vaccine delivery during novel pandemics and future pandemics. UAVCN's latest generation of real-time dense connectivity with ultra-low round-trip time latency of [Formula: see text] and high availability of 99. 999 percent. Thus, it can foster resilient vaccine delivery in a phased manner at government-designated nodal centers with reduced round trip delays from vaccine manufacturing warehouses. Thanks to shorter trip times, UAVCNs can ensure minimizes human involvement and monitors vaccine safety issues. From VPW to NCs, vaccines are available at NCs hospitals, and the BC guarantees timestamped documentation of vaccinated individuals with chronology, auditability, and transparency of supply chain checkpoints from VPW to NCs. The packet loss is significantly reduced to 2 percent using 5G-TI, relative to 36 s for 4000 transactions, with a communication latency of 16 s compared to 36 s in 4G-LTE-A.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/34388100
The Internet of Things application scenarios are becoming extensive thanks to the rapid evolution of smart devices with fifth-generation network slicing techniques, and thus IoT is now significantly relevant beyond fifth-generation networks. Using Markov Decision Process theory, the system model is turned into a stochastic optimization based challenge. We compare the existing model with DQN and Q-Learning schemes and find that the new DDQN based model fits better for resource allocation in terms of low transmission power and maximum energy conservation.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR488241
The three layers of the network include the infrastructure layers, which contain the capabilities required to execute a service, the slices layer, where services are provided for the services layer, which represents the network's top layer and includes applications or applications that are not required by users or devices.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35528711
New measurement methods and equipment for correct 5G In-situ exposure assessment of instantaneous time-averaged exposure and maximum extrapolated field exposure are suggested. For the different measurement methods at several locations, the difference between Emax and Eavg is 3 dB, indicating that there is only self-generated traffic. However, Eavg cannot be used to assess the exposure properly due to the geographical distribution of user equipment in a more realistic scenario, although Emax is not affected.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35511688
We present a multi-tiered network-based optimization model describing the provision of services by 5G-Service providers' network slices, taking into account each provider's security requirements. Given the difference between the revenues earned by the selling of services and the rental of their services and the costs, the proposed model aims to determine the optimal flows between network layers and the highest security levels in order to maximize the providers' earnings.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/PMC9062877
For worldwide mid-band 5G beam steering applications, a low-profile wideband spiral antenna array is provided. To ensure accurate global coverage, antenna arrays must be able to cover a range of 3. 3 GHz to 5 GHz. This work introduces the development of a wideband compressed spiral antenna that provides an axial beam throughout its operation bandwidth from 3. 3 GHz to 5 GHz, enabling beam steering capability. With an average back lobe level of less than 9. 5 dB, the upgraded spiral antenna array would provide a scanning range of -400 +400 in all azimuth directions with an average back lobe level of less than 9. 5 dB.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR487710
We experimentally demonstrate the use of optical frequency combs, produced by a photonic integrated circuit, in a scalable optical distribution network based on fiber-optics and free-space optics links aimed at the fifth generation of mobile network Xhauls. The proposed integrated OFC-based 5G system's performance is in accordance with the 3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 15's specifications, resulting in a total wireless throughput of 900 Mbit/s.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR486861
By utilizing the updated version of the Vivaldi antenna, a long-serving evolution and the fifth-generation wireless networks can be covered across all frequency bands for the long-term evolution and the mid-band fifth-generation wireless systems. The evaluation of the reflection and radiation characteristics of the antenna after it was mounted on the vehicle reveals the suitability of an antenna for the smart vehicle to vehicle communications.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35521503
Background The aim of this research was to determine the availability, safety, and stability of the 5G communication technology in medical laparoscopic telesurgery. Methods An ultra-remote radical cystectomy was performed on a patient with T2N0M0 stage bladder cancer using a domestically manufactured "MicroHand" surgical robot. Conclusions Ultra-remote clinical laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely and efficiently.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35476791
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